The Ancient Greeks believed that natural events had natural causes. They invented the deductive proof, and laid the foundations of physics and astronomy.
The rapid progress of European science was not inevitable. It was facilitated by Europe’s legal institutions, in particular, by the concept of jurisdiction.
Chinese scientists could not free themselves from the demands of the emperor, and Islamic scientists could not free themselves from the demands of Islam.
The Scientific Revolution occurred when mathematical reasoning and experimentation were widely adopted.
The steam engine powered a new generation of industrial machinery, and gave rise to modes of transportation that would stitch the world together.
The Industrial Revolution was one aspect of a dramatic change in the way that people thought of themselves and the world in which they lived.
The Second Industrial Revolution produced a range of new technologies, including industrial chemistry, electric power, and the internal combustion engine.
China became aware of Western science in the sixteenth century, but did not embrace it until the Opium Wars demonstrated the West’s technological superiority.
In the three or four decades that followed the Meiji Restoration, Japan utterly transformed itself. The transformation was wide-ranging, deliberate, determined, and profound. By the beginning of World War I, Japan could justly claim to be among the leading nations of the world…