The rapid progress of European science was not inevitable. It was facilitated by Europe’s legal institutions, in particular, by the concept of jurisdiction.
Category: social institutions
Impediments to Science in China and the Islamic World
Chinese scientists could not free themselves from the demands of the emperor, and Islamic scientists could not free themselves from the demands of Islam.
Economic Ideology and the Glorious Revolution
At the time of the Glorious Revolution, an ideology that emphasized the value of labour pushed aside an ideology that justified the power of the landowners.
The Enlightenment in Britain and France
Enlightenment philosophy changed the way in which people understood their place in the world, but the British and the French changed in very different ways.
A History of Religious Toleration
The struggle for religious toleration began in the sixteenth century. Its advocates risked their livelihoods, their freedom, and even their lives.
The Nineteenth-Century Rules for Growth
Over the course of the Industrial Revolution, Britain became an industrial superpower. Other countries had to find policies that would allow them to develop their industry despite Britain’s enormous first-mover advantage. These policies necessarily involved protectionist trade policies and government intervention…
The Transformation of Japan after the Meiji Restoration
Japan was a feudal economy in 1868. Over the next few decades it completely transformed itself to become one of the leading nations of the world.
Property and Property Rights: A History
The Western concept of property has been influenced by such thinkers as John Locke, James Madison, John Stuart Mill, and Friedrich Hayek.
The Doctrines of Nineteenth-Century Socialism
Socialist ideas first appeared in the early 1800s. Saint-Simon, Sismondi, Fourier and Marx were among their early expositors and proponents.
The Political Impact of Nineteenth-Century Socialism
Socialist and communist political parties were active by 1870. The most successful Marxist party, Germany’s SPD, was the largest party in the Reichstag by 1914.