Why Nations Fail:
 Theory is Tidy, History is Messy

Acemoglu and Robinson argue that sustained growth is almost always attained in a particular way: inclusive political institutions develop first, followed by inclusive economic institutions, followed by growth. They recognize the boldness of their claim…

Property and Property Rights: A History

What do property and property rights mean today? What are their philosophical and economic foundations?

Socialism in the Nineteenth Century

Socialist ideas began to appear in the early 1800s, and socialist and communist political parties were active before 1870. The most successful Marxist party, Germany’s SPD, was the largest party in the Reichstag by 1914…

Chinese Politics in the Time of Deng Xiaoping

The era in which Deng Xiaoping restructured the Chinese economy was also an era of social unrest, both within China and in the Eastern Bloc…

The Chinese Economy after Mao

After the death of Mao, China introduced new economic policies that caused very rapid growth of per capita GDP…