Property and Property Rights: A History

What do property and property rights mean today? What are their philosophical and economic foundations?

The Political Impact of Nineteenth-Century Socialism

Socialist ideas began to appear in the early 1800s, and socialist and communist political parties were active before 1870. The most successful Marxist party, Germany’s SPD, was the largest party in the Reichstag by 1914…

An Economic History of Russia: 1900-1924

In the first decades of the twentieth century, Russia went from autocracy, to revolution and civil war, to communist rule. Economically, it went from an impoverished market economy, to War Communism and the New Economic Policy, to the beginnings of the command economy…

An Economic History of Russia: 1924-1953

During Stalin’s rule, the Soviet Union abandoned markets in favour of a pure command economy, and industrialized at the fastest possible pace…

An Economic History of Russia: 1985-1991

Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to introduce market-oriented economic reforms in the late 1980s. They were too little, too late. The Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991…

Chinese Politics in the Time of Deng Xiaoping

The era in which Deng Xiaoping restructured the Chinese economy was also an era of social unrest, both within China and in the Eastern Bloc…