The Emergence of European States

From the fall of the Roman Empire until at least 1100 AD, there was nothing in Europe that could be called a state. States emerged in England and France over the period 1100-1300, and later in other parts of Europe. They showed early signs of constitutional government, but some countries veered towards authoritarianism under the financial stress of the fifteenth-century military revolution…

Reining In the Kings

The security of person and property is an essential aspect of property rights. That security was endangered during Europe‚Äôs Middle Ages by, among other things, the predatory behaviour of kings…